Circulation of Religious Elites in Late Empire: Two Pathways of State-Building in British Malaya

Hanisah Sani, National University of Singapore

Heightened imperial competition in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century forged multiple, even competing, networks of religious elites across the Muslim world. As these networks traversed the Indian Ocean to dock on either coast of British Malaya, they shaped divergent pathways of elite circulation and patterns of state-building. I consider and compare the southern state of Johor and eastern state of Kelantan in Malaya to build theory for religion and state-building in late empire

No extended abstract or paper available

 Presented in Session 223. State-Religion Relations at the Border